Field Trip Part 1

For this field trip assignment I found all of these species at Tuttle Park in Columbus, OH.

Invasive Plants

AMUR HONEYSUCKLE, Lonicera maackii. Native to eastern Asia. Introduced to North America in 1896 as for us as an ornamental, for wildlife cover and controlling soil erosion.  Spreads rapidly due to seeds being dispersed by birds and mammals and forms dense understory that restricts native plant growth. Control includes manually removing, chemically with herbicides and prescribed burning.

WINTERCREEPEREuonymus fortunei. Native to China, Japan and Korea. Was introduced as an ornamental ground cover. Very aggressive woody vine that eliminates native ground cover because it spreads so rapidly. Control includes manual removal and use of herbicides. 

Lime-loving Plants

According to Jane Forsyth in her article Linking Geology and Botany, the redbud tree species can be found in areas of limestone or limey substates.

REDBUD, Cercis canadensis

According to the same article the red oak is found in high-lime, clay rich substates.

RED OAK, Quercus rubra

Grasses and Sedges

GRAY’S SEDGE, Carex grayi. Principle feature of sedge have triangular stem, leaves have blade and sheath is closed.

ORCHARD GRASS, Dactylis glomerata. Grasses open leaf sheath.

Plant-animal interactions

PAWPAW, Asimina triolba. Its large fruit is eaten by opossum, squirrels, raccoon, fox, etc.

RED MULBERRY, Morus rubra. Fruits eaten by squirrels and birds who disperse seeds.

Field Trip Part 2

This field trip assignment took me to 3 different locations. I found these plants at Antrim Park in Columbus, OH, Iuka Park in Columbus, OH, and some from my own home in Solon, OH.

Mosses

Acrocarps with ovate leaves

Species guess: Plagiomnium cuspidatum

These were found on a rotten log near a stream on a patch of other moss as well. I guessed this species because they indeed look like a tiny vascular plant and the costa is obvious on the leaf.

Pleurocarps with ecostate broad leaves

Species guess: Entodon seductrix 

This moss was found on a rock next to a lake and the leaves appear “worm-like” and end with a sharp point. The sporophyte is also similar in shape to this species and has a red stem.

Conifers

Ferns were hard to find in urbanized Columbus, but here are two confier species that are at my home in Solon, Ohio.

BLUE SPRUCE, Picea pungens. You can tell a spruce from a fir because firs are friendly, meaning if you touch them they are soft and don’t hurt. Spruce’s on the other hand hurt to touch. Also you can tell this is a blue spruce because of the blue-ish color of the needles.

NORTHERN WHITE CEDAR, Thuja occidentalis. You can tell these is a cedar becuase of the scale like leaves and this is particular the northern white cedar because the leaves can be flattened in your hands.

Threats to Trees

I assumed that the threat to this tree from some type of boring insect due to the numerous holes in the bark. Boring causes areas of the tree to weaken as vital tissue is eaten. The best course of action is prevention. Since borers are attracted to trees that are stressed or injured, maintaining the health of the tree should prevent invasion.

The threat to this buckeye tree is spotted leaf disease. This disease weakens trees and shrubs by interrupting photosynthesis. Things that can be done to manage this disease are not overcrowding plants, reducing stress to tree, and raking up and destroying fallen leaves before the first snow to eliminate locations where the disease can survive.

Shrubs

COMMON MOCK ORANGEPhiladelphus inodorus. Deciduous shrub. Identifying features are the egg shaped leaves that are slightly pointed, white flowers with four petals and numerous stamen. Something interesting about the flowers of this shrub is that they are pollinated by bees.

MULTIFLORA ROSE, Rosa multiflora. Invasive shrub. 7-9 leaflets with comblike stipules. Flower has five white petals and numerous stamen. In the 1930’s this shrub was planted to serve as a “natural fence”.

During my search for shrubs I got help from a neighborhood friend!

Sources:

https://www.invasive.org/weedcd/pdfs/wow/amur-honeysuckle.pdf

https://www.gardeningknowhow.com/ornamental/trees/tgen/tree-borer-insects.htm

Peterson Field Guides Trees and Shrubs

https://extension.umn.edu/plant-diseases/leaf-spot-diseases-trees-and-shrubs

https://www.pickupflowers.com/flower-guide/idaho-state-flowers

http://www.bio.brandeis.edu/fieldbio/Verrill_Wolf/pages/multiflora_rose.html